July 21, 2024
REGIONAL ETHNIC AUTONOMY LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (CHINESE AND ENGLISH TEXT)

Issued: Thursday, May 31, 1984

Issuer: National People’s Congress

Source: The central government of the People’s Republic of China

The following is a translation prepared by the Congressional-Executive Commission on China of the “People’s Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law,” issued by the Second Session of the Sixth National People’s Congress on May 31, 1984 (effective October 1, 1984) and amended in accordance with the “Decision on Revising the People’s Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law” made at the 12th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People’s Congress on February 28, 2001. The Chinese text was retrieved from the Law-Lib’s Web site on February 14, 2006.
 

People’s Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law

PREAMBLE   

The People’s Republic of China is a unitary multinational state created jointly by the people of all its ethnic nationalities.  Regional ethnic autonomy is the basic policy adopted by the Communist Party of China for resolving the ethnic issue in China through its application of Marxism-Leninism. It is an important political system of the state.  

Regional ethnic autonomy means that the ethnic minorities, under unified state leadership, practice regional autonomy in areas where they live in concentrated communities and set up autonomous agencies for the exercise of the power of autonomy.  Regional ethnic autonomy reflects the state’s full respect for and guarantee of ethnic minorities’ right to administer their internal affairs and its adherence to the principle of equality, unity and common prosperity for all nationalities.

Regional ethnic autonomy has played an enormous role in giving full play to ethnic minorities’ enthusiasm for being masters over their own affairs, in developing among them a socialist relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance, in consolidating the unification of the country and in promoting socialist construction in the ethnic autonomous areas and the rest of the country.  Continuing to strengthen and improve the regional ethnic autonomy system will enable it to play a still greater role in the country’s socialist modernization in the years ahead.

Practice has proven that adherence to regional ethnic autonomy requires that the ethnic autonomous areas be given effective guarantees for implementing state laws and policies in the light of existing local conditions; that large numbers of minorities be trained to become cadres at all levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of all professions and trades; that the ethnic autonomous areas strive to promote local socialist construction in the spirit of self-reliance and hard work and contribute to the nation’s construction as a whole; and that the state strive to help the ethnic autonomous areas speed up their economic and cultural development in accordance with the plans for national economic and social development.  In the struggle to maintain the unity of the nationalities, both big-ethnic chauvinism, primarily Han chauvinism, and local ethnic chauvinism must be opposed.

Under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory, the people of various nationalities in the ethnic autonomous areas shall, together with the people of the whole country, adhere to the people’s democratic dictatorship, support reform and opening, follow the construction of a socialist road with Chinese characteristics, concentrate their efforts on the development of socialist modernization, develop socialist market economics, strengthen socialist democracy and legal development, strengthen the development of a socialist spirit and culture, speed up the economic and cultural development of the ethnic autonomous areas, build unified and prosperous ethnic autonomous areas, and diligently strive for the common prosperity of all nationalities by transforming the motherland into a socialist country that is prosperous, democratic, and culturally advanced.
   
The People’s Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law is the basic law for the implementation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy prescribed in the Constitution.

CHAPTER I GENERAL PRINCIPLES  

Article 1 The People’s Republic of China Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China.  

Article 2 Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where ethnic minorities live in concentrated communities.

Ethnic autonomous areas are classified into autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.

All ethnic autonomous areas are integral parts of the People’s Republic of China.   

Article 3 Ethnic autonomous areas establish autonomous agencies that function as local agencies of state power at their respective levels.  

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall apply the principle of democratic centralism.

Article 4 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall exercise the functions and powers of local state agencies as specified in Section 5 of Chapter III of the Constitution.  At the same time, they exercise the power of autonomy within the limits of their authority as prescribed by the Constitution, by this Law and other laws, and implement the laws and policies of the state in the light of existing local conditions.   

Autonomous agencies in autonomous prefectures exercise the functions and powers of local state agencies over cities divided into districts and cities with counties under their jurisdiction and, at the same time, exercise the power of autonomy.

Article 5 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas must uphold the unity of the country and guarantee that the Constitution and other laws are observed and implemented in these areas.   

Article 6  Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas lead the people of the various nationalities in a concentrated effort to promote socialist modernization.

Under the principle of not contravening the Constitution and the laws, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas have the power to adopt special policies and flexible measures in the light of local conditions to speed up the economic and cultural development of these areas.   

Under the guidance of state plans and on the basis of actual conditions, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas steadily increase labor productivity and economic results, develop social productive forces and gradually raise the material living standards of the people of the various nationalities.  
   
Autonomous agencies inAutonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas inherit and carry forward the fine traditions of ethnic cultures, build a socialist spirit and culture with ethnic characteristics, and steadily raise the socialist consciousness and scientific and cultural levels of the people of the various nationalities.  

Article 7 Institutions of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas shall place the interests of the state as a whole above all else and actively fulfill all tasks assigned by state institutions at higher levels.

Article 8 State organs at higher levels guarantee autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas the power of autonomy and shall, in accordance with the characteristics and needs of these areas, strive to help them speed up their socialist construction.  

Article 9 State organs at higher levels and autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas uphold and develop the socialist relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance among all of China’s nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality is prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the nationalities or instigates national division is also prohibited.  

Article 10 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas guarantee the freedom of the nationalities in these areas to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and their freedom to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs.

Article 11 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas guarantee the freedom of religious belief to citizens of the various nationalities.  

No state organ, public organization or individual may compel citizens to believe in, or not to believe in, any religion, nor may they discriminate against citizens who believe in, or do not believe in, any religion.

The state protects normal religious activities.  No one may make use of religion to engage in activities that disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the educational system of the state.

Religious bodies and religious affairs shall not be subject to any foreign domination.

CHAPTER II ESTABLISHMENT OF ETHNIC AUTONOMOUS AREAS AND THE STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANS OF SELF-GOVERNMENT   

Article 12 Autonomous areas may be established where one or more minority nationalities live in concentrated communities, in the light of local conditions such as the relationship among the various nationalities and the level of economic development, and with due consideration for historical background.

Within an ethnic autonomous area, appropriate autonomous areas or ethnic townships may be established where other ethnic minorities live in concentrated communities.   

Some residential areas and towns of the Han nationality or other nationalities may be included in an ethnic autonomous area in consideration of actual local conditions.  

Article 13 Except in special cases, the name of an ethnic autonomous area shall be composed of the name of the locality and the name of the ethnic minority and the administrative status, in that order.   

Article 14 The establishment of an ethnic autonomous area, the delineation of its boundaries and the elements of its name are proposed by the state organ at the next higher level jointly with the state organ in the relevant locality, after full consultation with representatives of the relevant nationalities, before they are submitted for approval according to the procedures prescribed by law.

Once established, an autonomous area may not be revoked or merged without proper legal procedures. Once defined, the boundaries of an ethnic autonomous area may not be altered without proper legal procedures.  If it is truly necessary to revoke autonomy, or merge or change areas, the ethnic autonomous organs and the concerned department of the next higher level state organs must thoroughly consult and formulate an agreement to submit for approval according to the procedures prescribed by law.   

Article 15 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas are the people’s congresses and people’s governments of autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.   

The people’s governments of ethnic autonomous areas are responsible to and report on their work to the people’s congresses at corresponding levels and to the administrative organs of the state at the next higher level.  When the people’s congresses at corresponding levels are not in session, they are responsible to and report on their work to the standing committees of these people’s congresses.  The people’s governments of all ethnic autonomous areas are administrative organs of the state under the unified leadership of the State Council and are subordinate to it.   

The organization and work of autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall be specified in these areas’ self-governing regulations or separate regulations, in accordance with the Constitution and other laws.

Article 16 In the people’s congress of an ethnic autonomous area, in addition to the deputies from the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the administrative area, the other nationalities inhabiting the area are also entitled to appropriate representation.
   
The number and proportion of deputies to the people’s congress of an ethnic autonomous area from the nationality exercising regional autonomy and from other ethnic minorities are decided upon by the standing committee of the people’s congress of a province, an autonomous region, or directly-administered municipality in accordance with the principles prescribed by law and are reported to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for the record.

Among the chairman and vice-chairmen of the standing committee of the people’s congress of an ethnic autonomous area shall be one or more citizens of the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the area.   

Article 17 The chairman of an autonomous region, the prefect of an autonomous prefecture or the head of an autonomous county shall be a citizen of the nationality exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned. Other posts in the people’s government of an autonomous region, an autonomous prefecture or an autonomous county should be equitably allocated among people of the nationality exercising regional autonomy and other minority nationalities in the area concerned.  
   
The people’s governments of ethnic autonomous areas apply the system of giving overall responsibility to the chairman of an autonomous region, the prefect of an autonomous prefecture or the head of an autonomous county, who direct the work of the people’s government at their respective levels.

Article 18 The cadres in the departments under autonomous agencies in an ethnic autonomous area should be equitably drawn from among citizens of the nationality exercising regional autonomy and the other ethnic minorities in the area.

CHAPTER III THE POWER OF AUTONOMY OF THE ORGANS OF SELF-GOVERNMENT   

Article 19 The people’s congresses of ethnic autonomous areas shall have the power to enact self-governing regulations and separate regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nationality or nationalities in the areas concerned.  The self-governing regulations and separate regulations of autonomous regions shall be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress for approval before they go into effect. The regulations on the exercise of autonomy and separate regulations of autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are submitted to the Standing Committees of the People’s Congresses of provinces, autonomous regions, or directly-administered municipalities for approval before they go into effect, and they are reported to the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and the State Council for the record.   

Article 20 If a resolution, decision, order, or instruction of a state agency at a higher level does not suit the actual conditions in an ethnic autonomous area, an autonomous agency of the area may report for the approval of that higher level state agency to either implement it with certain alterations or cease implementing it altogether. That higher level state agency must give its decision within sixty days of receiving the report.  

Article 21 While performing its functions, the autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area, in accordance with the regulations on the exercise of autonomy of the area, use the language or languages commonly used in the locality; where several commonly used languages are used for the performance of such functions, the language of the nationality exercising regional autonomy may be used as the main language.   

Article 22 In accordance with the needs of socialist construction, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall take various measures to train large numbers of cadres at different levels and all kinds of specialized personnel, including scientists, technicians and managerial executives, as well as skilled workers from among the local nationalities, giving full play to their roles, and pay attention to the training of cadres at all levels and specialized and technical personnel of all kinds from among the women of minority nationalities.  

When employing cadres, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas should give proper consideration to hiring members of the nationality exercising autonomy and other minorities from the area.   

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may adopt special measures to provide preferential treatment and encouragement to specialized personnel joining in the various kinds of construction in these areas.  

Article 23 When recruiting personnel in accordance with state regulations, enterprises and institutions in ethnic autonomous areas give priority to minority nationalities and may enlist them from the population of minority nationalities in rural and pastoral areas.

Article 24 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may, in accordance with the military system of the state and practical local need and with the approval of the State Council, organize local public security forces for the maintenance of public order.    

Article 25 Under the guidance of state plans, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas work out the guidelines, policies and plans for economic development based on local characteristics and needs and independently arrange for and administer local economic development.

Article 26 Given the prerequisite of adherence to the principles of socialism, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall, in accordance with legal stipulations and local economic development conditions, rationally readjust the relations of production and reform the structure of economic administration to work hard for the development of a socialist market economy.

The organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas, supporting public ownership as the base of an economic system with multiple forms of ownership developing together, may encourage the development of the non-public sector.

Article 27 In accordance with legal stipulations, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall define the ownership of, and the right to use, the pastures and forests within these areas.  

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall protect and develop grasslands and forests and organize and encourage the planting of trees and grass.  Destruction of grasslands and forests by any organization or individual by whatever means shall be prohibited. Destruction of grasslands or forests in order to reclaim land for agricultural purposes is strictly forbidden.   

Article 28 In accordance with legal stipulations, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas manage and protect the natural resources of these areas.

In accordance with legal stipulations and unified state plans, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may give priority to the rational exploitation and utilization of the natural resources that the local authorities are entitled to develop.

Article 29 Under the guidance of state plans, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas independently arrange local construction projects according to their financial and material resources and other specific local conditions.   

Article 30 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall independently administer the enterprises and institutions under local jurisdiction.

Article 31 In accordance with state provisions, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may pursue foreign economic and trade activities and may, with the approval of the State Council, open foreign trade ports.  

Ethnic autonomous areas adjoining foreign countries may develop border trade with the approval of the State Council.   

While conducting foreign economic and trade activities, autonomous agencies in the ethnic autonomous areas enjoy preferential treatment by the state.     

Article 32 The finance of an ethnic autonomous area constitutes a particular level of finance and is a component of state finance.   
   
Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas have the power to autonomously administer the finances of their areas.  All revenues accruing to the ethnic autonomous areas under the financial system of the state shall be managed and used by autonomous agencies in these areas on their own.   

Regional autonomous governments enjoy preferential treatment from the next higher level of government when transfer payments are being calculated as part of the unified state financial system.

Ethnic autonomous areas, in accordance with state stipulations, lay aside a reserve fund for expenditure in their budgets.  The proportion of the reserve fund in their budgets shall be higher than that in the budgets of other areas.  

While implementing fiscal budgets, autonomous agencies in an ethnic autonomous area shall arrange for the use of extra income and savings from expenditures at their own discretion.

Article 33 In accordance with the principles set by the state and in the light of local conditions, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may work out supplementary provisions and concrete procedures with regard to the standards of expenditure, the sizes of the staff and the quotas of work for their respective areas.  The supplementary provisions and concrete procedures worked out by autonomous regions are reported to the State Council for the record; those worked out by autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are reported to the people’s governments of the relevant provinces, autonomous regions, or directly-administered municipalities for approval.   

Article 34 While implementing the tax laws of the state, apart from those tax reduction items that should be centrally examined and approved by the state, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may grant tax exemptions or reductions for certain items that belong to local financial revenue and that should be encouraged or given preferential tax terms. The decisions of autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties on tax reduction and exemption are reported to the people’s governments of the relevant provinces, autonomous regions, or directly-administered municipalities for approval.  

Article 35 Based on local needs for economic and socialist development and in accordance with legal guidelines, local autonomous areas may open local commercial banks and credit cooperatives.

Article 36 In accordance with state guidelines on education and in accordance with the law, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas decide on educational plans in these areas, on the establishment of various kinds of schools at different levels, and on their educational system, forms, curricula, the language used in instruction and enrollment procedures.  

Article 37 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas independently develop education for the nationalities, eliminate illiteracy, set up various kinds of schools, spread nine-years of compulsory education, develop various kinds of secondary schools and vocational training, develop higher levels of education depending on local conditions and needs, and train specialized personnel from among the minority nationalities.  

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas may set up public primary schools and secondary schools, mainly boarding schools and schools providing subsidies, in pastoral areas and economically underdeveloped, sparsely populated mountain areas inhabited by ethnic minorities to assure students complete their compulsory education. Local governments should finance the schools and scholarships. For economic hardship areas, the next higher level of government should subsidize the costs.

Schools (classes) and other educational organizations recruiting mostly ethnic minority students should, whenever possible, use textbooks in their own languages and use these languages as the media of instruction.  Beginning in the lower or senior grades of primary school, Han language and literature courses should be taught to popularize the common language used throughout the country and the use of Han Chinese characters.

Every local government should provide financial support for the production of teaching materials in the minority scripts and for publication and translation work.

Article 38 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas independently develop literature, art, the press, publishing, radio broadcasting, the film industry, television and other cultural undertakings in forms and with characteristics unique to the nationalities. They shall increase investments in cultural enterprises, increase the construction of cultural facilities, and speed up the development of all types of cultural enterprises.  

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas support relevant departments and bureaus as they collect, organize, translate and publish historical and cultural books of the nationalities, protect the scenic spots and historical sites in their areas, their treasured cultural relics and their other important historical and cultural legacies, and preserve and develop outstanding ethnic traditional culture.  

Article 39 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall make independent decisions on local plans for developing science and technology and spreading knowledge of science and technology.  

Article 40 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall make independent decisions on plans for developing local medical and health services and for advancing both modern medicine and the traditional medicine of the nationalities.  

Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall see to a more effective prevention of endemic and local diseases, provide better protection for the health of women and children, and improve medical and sanitary conditions.

Article 41 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas independently develop sports, promote the traditional sports of the nationalities and improve the physical fitness of the people of the various nationalities.  

Article 42 Autonomous agencies in the ethnic autonomous areas strive to develop exchanges and cooperation with other areas in education, science and technology, culture and art, public health, sports, etc.

In accordance with relevant state provisions, autonomous agencies in autonomous regions and autonomous prefectures may conduct exchanges with foreign countries in education, science and technology, culture and art, public health, sports, etc.    

Article 43 In accordance with the law, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas work out measures for control of the transient population.   

Article 44 Regional autonomous areas will carry out family planning and good maternity practices in order to raise the quality of each minority population.

In accordance with the law, autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas, in the light of local conditions, work out measures for family planning.   

Article 45 Autonomous agencies in ethnic autonomous areas shall protect and improve the living environment and the ecological environment, preventing pollution and other public hazards through the balanced development of the population, natural resources, and environment.

CHAPTER IV THE PEOPLE’S COURTS AND PEOPLE’S PROCURATORATES OF NATIONAL AUTONOMOUS AREAS

Article 46 The people’s courts and people’s procuratorates of ethnic autonomous areas shall be responsible to the people’s congresses at corresponding levels and their standing committees.  The people’s procuratorates of ethnic autonomous areas shall also be responsible to the people’s procuratorates at higher levels.

The administration of justice by the people’s courts of ethnic autonomous areas shall be supervised by the Supreme People’s Court and by people’s courts at higher levels.  The work of the people’s procuratorates of ethnic autonomous areas shall be directed by the Supreme People’s Procuratorate and by people’s procuratorates at higher levels.   

Members of the leadership and of the staff of the people’s court and of the people’s procuratorate of an ethnic autonomous area shall include people from the nationality exercising regional autonomy in that area.  

Article 47 In the hearing and investigation of cases, the people’s courts and people’s procuratorates of ethnic autonomous areas shall use the language commonly used in the locality.  In addition, they should be reasonably equipped with personnel proficient in the spoken and written languages of the ethnic minorities. For those involved in a case who are not familiar with the local language and script, a translator should be provided. Legal documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages commonly used in the locality. Citizens of various nationalities are guaranteed the right to use their own spoken and written languages in court proceedings.

CHAPTER V RELATIONS AMONG NATIONALITIES WITHIN AN ETHNIC AUTONOMOUS AREA

Article 48 Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area guarantee equal rights for the various nationalities in the area.   

Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area unite the cadres and masses of the various nationalities and give full play to their initiative in a joint effort to develop the area.   

Article 49 Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area persuade and encourage cadres of the various nationalities to learn each other’s spoken and written languages.  Cadres of Han nationality will learn the spoken and written languages of the local minority nationalities.  While learning and using the spoken and written languages of their own nationalities, cadres of minority nationalities should also learn the spoken and written Chinese language commonly used throughout the country.  

Awards should be given to state functionaries in ethnic autonomous areas who can use skillfully two or more spoken or written languages that are commonly used in the locality.

Article 50 Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area shall help other minority nationalities living in concentrated communities in the area establish appropriate autonomous areas or ethnic townships.   

Automomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area help the various nationalities in the area develop their economic, educational, scientific and technological, cultural, public health and sports facilities.   

Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area care for the characteristics and needs of nationalities living in settlements scattered over the area.

Article 51 In dealing with special issues concerning the various nationalities within its area, autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area must conduct full consultation with their representatives and respect their opinions.  

Article 52 Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area shall guarantee that all ethnic minority citizens in the area enjoy the rights of citizens prescribed in the Constitution and shall educate them in the need to perform their duties as citizens.    

Article 53 Autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area shall promote the civic virtues of love of the motherland, of the people, of labor, of science and of socialism and conduct education among the citizens of the various nationalities in the area in patriotism, communism and state policies concerning the nationalities.  The cadres and masses of the various nationalities must be educated to trust, learn from and help one another and to respect the spoken and written languages, folkways and customs and religious beliefs of one another in a joint effort to safeguard the unity of the country and the unity of all the nationalities.

CHAPTER VI THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF STATE ORGANS AT HIGHER LEVELS  

Article 54 The resolutions, decisions, orders and instructions concerning ethnic autonomous areas adopted by state agencies at higher levels should suit the actual conditions in these areas.    

Article 55 The state agencies at higher levels should assist and guide research, formulation, and implementation of the autonomous areas’ economic development strategies and assist the regional autonomous areas in banking, financial, material, technical, personnel, and other areas to speed the development of their economic, educational, scientific and technical, public health and sports enterprises.  

The state shall develop preferential policies to attract and encourage domestic and international investment in ethnic autonomous areas.

When establishing the plan for national economy and socialist development, state agencies at higher levels should give consideration to the needs and characteristics of the ethnic autonomous areas.

Article 56 In accordance with unified planning and market demands the state gives priority to exploiting natural resources and developing basic infrastructure in regional autonomous areas. When investing in major infrastructure projects, the state will properly increase its share of investment and the share of loans from policy-driven banks.

For state infrastructure projects in regional autonomous areas ordinarily requiring matching funds, the state may reduce or completely remove the local matching fund requirements depending on the circumstances.

The state shall actively encourage the proper movement of personnel with advanced scientific and technical training into regional autonomous areas to help these areas speed the use of science and technology and to enjoy the benefits deriving from them. When the state transfers infrastructure projects to autonomous areas, it will also provide the necessary supporting advanced equipment and technology.

Article 57 In accordance with the economic conditions and needs of the autonomous areas, the state comprehensively uses currency and capital markets to give extra financial assistance to the autonomous areas. Financial organizations should give extra support to autonomous areas for fixed-assets investment projects, enterprises in accord with government ownership policies, the exploitation of natural resources, and a variety of other reasonable projects requiring investment funds.

The state encourages commercial banks to increase investment loans to the autonomous areas in order to actively support the reasonable investment needs of local enterprises.

Article 58 The higher level of government encourages regional autonomous enterprises’ technological breakthroughs and the upgradings of their industrial structure through financial, banking, personnel, and other means.

The higher level state agencies should organize and encourage enterprise managers and technical staff to study in more economically developed areas. At the same time, enterprise managers and technical personnel from the more economically advanced areas should be guided and encouraged to work in enterprises in the regional autonomous areas.

Article 59 The state sets aside special funds to help ethnic autonomous areas develop their economy and culture.

The special funds set aside by the state and its provisional grants to the nationalities may not be deducted, withheld or misappropriated by any state agency, nor may they be used to substitute for the normal budgetary revenues of ethnic autonomous areas.  

Article 60 In accordance with the state’s trade policy for minority nationalities and the needs of the regional autonomous area, state organs at higher levels give investment, financial, and tax support to help commercial, supply and marketing, and medical and pharmaceutical enterprises in ethnic autonomous areas.   

Article 61 The state shall develop preferential policies to increase border trade, develop regional autonomous areas’ international trade, encourage the development of locally superior products and exports, and increase the autonomous areas’ independent management of international dealings in the manufacturing sector.     

Article 62 As the national economy develops and national revenues increase, the higher level financial organs shall gradually increase financial transfer payments to autonomous areas. State organs at higher levels use regular transfer payments, earmarked funds, preferential transfer payment policies for minorities, or other methods determined by the state to increase investment funds to autonomous areas. In this way, the state will speed up economic development and social progress, gradually decreasing disparities between minority areas and more developed regions.

Article 63 The higher levels of state government, through investments, financing, and tax policies, etc., shall assist the regional autonomous areas improve their agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, and other production capabilities as well as their basic infrastructure in such areas as water, transportation, natural resources, and communications in order to assist the regional autonomous areas rationally exploit local natural resources for local industries, township and village enterprises, small and medium enterprises and the production of traditional handicrafts and special minority products.  

Article 64 State organs at higher levels should organize, support, and encourage economically advanced areas and autonomous areas develop multilayered and multifaceted economic and scientific exchanges to assist and promote the autonomous areas’ economic, educational, scientific and technological, cultural, public health, and sports enterprises.

 Article 65 While exploiting resources and undertaking construction in ethnic autonomous areas, the state shall give consideration to the interests of these areas, make arrangements favorable to economic construction there and pay proper attention to the productive pursuits and the life of the minority nationalities there. When exporting natural resources out of the autonomous areas, the state should give them a certain amount of compensation.

The state should guide and encourage businesses from economically advanced areas on a mutually beneficial basis to invest in the autonomous areas and develop various economic cooperative arrangements.   

Article 66 The state should place large-scale ecological balance and conservation projects in the minority areas into the national development plan for the economy and society.
Regional autonomous areas that make a contribution to the country’s ecological balance and environmental conservation should receive a certain degree of compensation from the state.
Any organization or individual exploiting natural resources or carrying out construction projects in autonomous areas must implement effective measures for preserving and improving the living environment and ecological environment and must prevent pollution and other hazardous waste.

Article 67 Enterprises and institutions affiliated with state agencies at higher levels but located in ethnic autonomous areas give priority to local ethnic minorities when recruiting personnel according to national regulations.

Enterprises and institutions affiliated to state organs at higher levels but located in ethnic autonomous areas respect the power of autonomy of autonomous agencies, respect the local guidelines for autonomy and local rules and regulations, and accept the supervision of the local autonomous agencies.

Article 68 Without the consent of the autonomous agencies of an ethnic autonomous area, no state agency at a higher level may change the affiliation of an enterprise under the administration of the local government.

Article 69 The state and the higher level of the people’s government should through financing, banking, materials, technology, personnel, and other methods aid the poor counties in autonomous areas in quickly escaping poverty and developing a comfortable standard of living.

Article 70 State agencies at higher levels shall help ethnic autonomous areas train, from among local nationalities, large numbers of cadres at various levels and specialized personnel and skilled workers of different professions and trades; in accordance with local needs and in various forms, they shall send appropriate numbers of teachers, doctors, scientists and technicians as well as managerial executives to work in ethnic autonomous areas and provide them with proper benefits.

Article 71 The state shall increase investments in education in autonomous areas and implement special measures to help them speed up the development of education, provide nine-years of compulsory education, and raise the scientific and cultural levels of the people of local nationalities.

The state shall set up nationality institutes and, in other institutions of higher education, nationality-oriented classes and preparatory classes that enroll only or mostly students from ethnic minorities.  Students can be recruited from specific areas and assigned jobs in specific areas after graduation.  Institutions of higher education and secondary technical schools shall appropriately set lower standards and requirements for the admission of students from ethnic minorities, with special considerations especially for students from ethnic minorities with small populations. Every local government and school should use multiple methods to assist students from economically disadvantaged homes complete their education.

The state shall establish in economically advanced areas ethnic middle schools or special ethnic classes in regular middle schools that specifically recruit minority students for middle school education.

The state shall assist ethnic autonomous areas develop and train teachers from each of the nationalities. The state shall organize and encourage ethnic minority teachers and graduates with teaching qualifications to teach in ethnic autonomous areas, and will moreover provide them with appropriate special compensation. Article 72 State organs at higher levels shall intensify education among cadres and masses of the various nationalities in the government’s policies concerning nationalities and frequently review the observance and implementation of these policies and relevant laws.

CHAPTER VII SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Article 73 In order to implement this law, the State Council and other concerned government organs should issue administrative rules and regulations and concrete implementation guidelines within the limits of their jurisdiction.

The People’s Congresses and their Standing Committees in autonomous areas and in provinces and municipalities with autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties should determine concrete implementation guidelines.

Article 74 This law was passed by the National People’s Congress and became effective October 1, 1984.

中华人民共和国民族区域自治法

中华人民共和国民族区域自治法

(1984年5月31日第六届全国人民代表大会第二次会议通过

根据2001年2月28日第九届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十次会议《关于修改〈中华人民共和国民族区域自治法〉的决定》修正)

目录

序言
第一章 总则
第二章 民族自治地方的建立和自治机关的组成
第三章 自治机关的自治权
第四章 民族自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院
第五章 民族自治地方内的民族关系
第六章 上级国家机关的职责
第七章 附则
序言

中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。民族区域自治是中国共产党运用马克思列宁主义解决我国民族问题的基本政策,是国家的一项基本政治制度。

民族区域自治是在国家统一领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。实行民族区域自治,体现了国家充分尊重和保障各少数民族管理本民族内部事务权利的精神,体现了国家坚持实行各民族平等、团结和共同繁荣的原则。

实行民族区域自治,对发挥各族人民当家作主的积极性,发展平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系,巩固国家的统一,促进民族自治地方和全国社会主义建设事业 的发展,都起了巨大的作用。今后,继续坚持和完善民族区域自治制度,使这一制度在国家的社会主义现代化建设进程中发挥更大的作用。

实践证明,坚持实行民族区域自治,必须切实保障民族自治地方根据本地实际情况贯彻执行国家的法律和政策;必须大量培养少数民族的各级干部、各种专业人才和 技术工人;民族自治地方必须发扬自力更生、艰苦奋斗精神,努力发展本地方的社会主义建设事业,为国家建设作出贡献;国家根据国民经济和社会发展计划,努力 帮助民族自治地方加速经济和文化的发展。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。

民族自治地方的各族人民和全国人民一道,在中国共产党的领导下,在马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论的指引下,坚持人民民主专政,坚持改革开放,沿 着建设有中国特色社会主义的道路,集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设,发展社会主义市场经济,加强社会主义民主与法制建设,加强社会主义精神文明建设,加速 民族自治地方经济、文化的发展,建设团结、繁荣的民族自治地方,为各民族的共同繁荣,把祖国建设成为富强、民主、文明的社会主义国家而努力奋斗。

《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》是实施宪法规定的民族区域自治制度的基本法律。

第一章 总则

第一条 中华人民共和国民族区域自治法,根据中华人民共和国宪法制定。

第二条 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治。

民族自治地方分为自治区、自治州、自治县。

各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。

第三条 民族自治地方设立自治机关,自治机关是国家的一级地方政权机关。

民族自治地方的自治机关实行民主集中制的原则。

第四条 民族自治地方的自治机关行使宪法第三章第五节规定的地方国家机关的职权,同时依照宪法和本法以及其他法律规定的权限行使自治权,根据本地方的实际情况贯彻执行国家的法律、政策。

自治州的自治机关行使下设区、县的市的地方国家机关的职权,同时行使自治权。

第五条 民族自治地方的自治机关必须维护国家的统一,保证宪法和法律在本地方的遵守和执行。

第六条 民族自治地方的自治机关领导各族人民集中力量进行社会主义现代化建设。

民族自治地方的自治机关根据本地方的情况,在不违背宪法和法律的原则下,有权采取特殊政策和灵活措施,加速民族自治地方经济、文化建设事业的发展。

民族自治地方的自治机关在国家计划的指导下,从实际出发,不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力,逐步提高各民族的物质生活水平。

民族自治地方的自治机关继承和发扬民族文化的优良传统,建设具有民族特点的社会主义精神文明,不断提高各民族人民的社会主义觉悟和科学文化水平。

第七条 民族自治地方的自治机关要把国家的整体利益放在首位,积极完成上级国家机关交给的各项任务。

第八条 上级国家机关保障民族自治地方的自治机关行使自治权,并且依据民族自治地方的特点和需要,努力帮助民族自治地方加速发展社会主义建设事业。

第九条 上级国家机关和民族自治地方的自治机关维护和发展各民族的平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。

第十条 民族自治地方的自治机关保障本地方各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。

第十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关保障各民族公民有宗教信仰自由。

任何国家机关、社会团体和个人不得强制公民信仰宗教或者不信仰宗教,不得歧视信仰宗教的公民和不信仰宗教的公民。

国家保护正常的宗教活动。

任何人不得利用宗教进行破坏社会秩序、损害公民身体健康、妨碍国家教育制度的活动。

宗教团体和宗教事务不受外国势力的支配。

第二章 民族自治地方的建立和自治机关的组成

第十二条 少数民族聚居的地方,根据当地民族关系、经济发展等条件,并参酌历史情况,可以建立以一个或者几个少数民族聚居区为基础的自治地方。

民族自治地方内其他少数民族聚居的地方,建立相应的自治地方或者民族乡。

民族自治地方依据本地方的实际情况,可以包括一部分汉族或者其他民族的居民区和城镇。

第十三条 民族自治地方的名称,除特殊情况外,按照地方名称、民族名称、行政地位的顺序组成。

第十四条 民族自治地方的建立、区域界线的划分、名称的组成,由上级国家机关会同有关地方的国家机关,和有关民族的代表充分协商拟定,按照法律规定的程序报请批准。

民族自治地方一经建立,未经法定程序,不得撤销或者合并;民族自治地方的区域界线一经确定,未经法定程序,不得变动;确实需要撤销、合并或者变动的,由上级国家机关的有关部门和民族自治地方的自治机关充分协商拟定,按照法定程序报请批准。

第十五条 民族自治地方的自治机关是自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会和人民政府。

民族自治地方的人民政府对本级人民代表大会和上一级国家行政机关负责并报告工作,在本级人民代表大会闭会期间,对本级人民代表大会常务委员会负责并报告工作。各民族自治地方的人民政府都是国务院统一领导下的国家行政机关,都服从国务院。

民族自治地方的自治机关的组织和工作,根据宪法和法律,由民族自治地方的自治条例或者单行条例规定。

第十六条 民族自治地方的人民代表大会中,除实行区域自治的民族的代表外,其他居住在本行政区域内的民族也应当有适当名额的代表。

民族自治地方的人民代表大会中,实行区域自治的民族和其他少数民族代表的名额和比例,根据法律规定的原则,由省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会决定,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会备案。

民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中应当有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任主任或者副主任。

第十七条 自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。自治区、自治州、自治县的人民政府的其他组成人员,应当合理配备实行区域自治的民族和其他少数民族的人员。

民族自治地方的人民政府实行自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长负责制。自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长,分别主持本级人民政府工作。

第十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关所属工作部门的干部中,应当合理配备实行区域自治的民族和其他少数民族的人员。

第三章 自治机关的自治权

第十九条民族自治地方的人民代表大会有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化的特点,制定自治条例和单行条例。自治区的自治条例和单行条例,报全国人民代表大 会常务委员会批准后生效。自治州、自治县的自治条例和单行条例报省、自治区、直辖市的人民代表大会常务委员会批准后生效,并报全国人民代表大会常务委员会 和国务院备案。

第二十条 上级国家机关的决议、决定、命令和指示,如有不适合民族自治地方实际情况的,自治机关可以报经该上级国家机关批准,变通执行或者停止执行;该上级国家机关应当在收到报告之日起六十日内给予答复。

第二十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关在执行职务的时候,依照本民族自治地方自治条例的规定,使用当地通用的一种或者几种语言文字;同时使用几种通用的语言文字执行职务的,可以以实行区域自治的民族的语言文字为主。

第二十二条 民族自治地方的自治机关根据社会主义建设的需要,采取各种措施从当地民族中大量培养各级干部、各种科学技术、经营管理等专业人才和技术工人,充分发挥他们的作用,并且注意在少数民族妇女中培养各级干部和各种专业技术人才。

民族自治地方的自治机关录用工作人员的时候,对实行区域自治的民族和其他少数民族的人员应当给予适当的照顾。

民族自治地方的自治机关可以采取特殊措施,优待、鼓励各种专业人员参加自治地方各项建设工作。

第二十三条 民族自治地方的企业、事业单位依照国家规定招收人员时,优先招收少数民族人员,并且可以从农村和牧区少数民族人口中招收。

第二十四条 民族自治地方的自治机关依照国家的军事制度和当地的实际需要,经国务院批准,可以组织本地方维护社会治安的公安部队。

第二十五条 民族自治地方的自治机关在国家计划的指导下,根据本地方的特点和需要,制定经济建设的方针、政策和计划,自主地安排和管理地方性的经济建设事业。

第二十六条 民族自治地方的自治机关在坚持社会主义原则的前提下,根据法律规定和本地方经济发展的特点,合理调整生产关系和经济结构,努力发展社会主义市场经济。

民族自治地方的自治机关坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,鼓励发展非公有制经济。

第二十七条 民族自治地方的自治机关根据法律规定,确定本地方内草场和森林的所有权和使用权。

民族自治地方的自治机关保护、建设草原和森林,组织和鼓励植树种草。禁止任何组织或者个人利用任何手段破坏草原和森林。严禁在草原和森林毁草毁林开垦耕地。

第二十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关依照法律规定,管理和保护本地方的自然资源。

民族自治地方的自治机关根据法律规定和国家的统一规划,对可以由本地方开发的自然资源,优先合理开发利用。

第二十九条 民族自治地方的自治机关在国家计划的指导下,根据本地方的财力、物力和其他具体条件,自主地安排地方基本建设项目。

第三十条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地管理隶属于本地方的企业、事业。

第三十一条 民族自治地方依照国家规定,可以开展对外经济贸易活动,经国务院批准,可以开辟对外贸易口岸。

与外国接壤的民族自治地方经国务院批准,开展边境贸易。

民族自治地方在对外经济贸易活动中,享受国家的优惠政策。

第三十二条 民族自治地方的财政是一级财政,是国家财政的组成部分。

民族自治地方的自治机关有管理地方财政的自治权。凡是依照国家财政体制属于民族自治地方的财政收入,都应当由民族自治地方的自治机关自主地安排使用。

民族自治地方在全国统一的财政体制下,通过国家实行的规范的财政转移支付制度,享受上级财政的照顾。

民族自治地方的财政预算支出,按照国家规定,设机动资金,预备费在预算中所占比例高于一般地区。

民族自治地方的自治机关在执行财政预算过程中,自行安排使用收入的超收和支出的节余资金。

第三十三条民族自治地方的自治机关对本地方的各项开支标准、定员、定额,根据国家规定的原则,结合本地方的实际情况,可以制定补充规定和具体办法。自治区 制定的补充规定和具体办法,报国务院备案;自治州、自治县制定的补充规定和具体办法,须报省、自治区、直辖市人民政府批准。

第三十四条 民族自治地方的自治机关在执行国家税法的时候,除应由国家统一审批的减免税收项目以外,对属于地方财政收入的某些需要从税收上加以照顾和鼓励的,可以实行减税或者免税。自治州、自治县决定减税或者免税,须报省、自治区、直辖市人民政府批准。

第三十五条 民族自治地方根据本地方经济和社会发展的需要,可以依照法律规定设立地方商业银行和城乡信用合作组织。

第三十六条 民族自治地方的自治机关根据国家的教育方针,依照法律规定,决定本地方的教育规划,各级各类学校的设置、学制、办学形式、教学内容、教学用语和招生办法。

第三十七条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地发展民族教育,扫除文盲,举办各类学校,普及九年义务教育,采取多种形式发展普通高级中等教育和中等职业技术教育,根据条件和需要发展高等教育,培养各少数民族专业人才。

民族自治地方的自治机关为少数民族牧区和经济困难、居住分散的少数民族山区,设立以寄宿为主和助学金为主的公办民族小学和民族中学,保障就读学生完成义务教育阶段的学业。办学经费和助学金由当地财政解决,当地财政困难的,上级财政应当给予补助。

招收少数民族学生为主的学校(班级)和其他教育机构,有条件的应当采用少数民族文字的课本,并用少数民族语言讲课;根据情况从小学低年级或者高年级起开设汉语文课程,推广全国通用的普通话和规范汉字。

各级人民政府要在财政方面扶持少数民族文字的教材和出版物的编译和出版工作。

第三十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地发展具有民族形式和民族特点的文学、艺术、新闻、出版、广播、电影、电视等民族文化事业,加大对文化事业的投入,加强文化设施建设,加快各项文化事业的发展。

民族自治地方的自治机关组织、支持有关单位和部门收集、整理、翻译和出版民族历史文化书籍,保护民族的名胜古迹、珍贵文物和其他重要历史文化遗产,继承和发展优秀的民族传统文化。

第三十九条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地决定本地方的科学技术发展规划,普及科学技术知识。

第四十条 民族自治地方的自治机关,自主地决定本地方的医疗卫生事业的发展规划,发展现代医药和民族传统医药。

民族自治地方的自治机关加强对传染病、地方病的预防控制工作和妇幼卫生保健,改善医疗卫生条件。

第四十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关自主地发展体育事业,开展民族传统体育活动,增强各族人民的体质。

第四十二条 民族自治地方的自治机关积极开展和其他地方的教育、科学技术、文化艺术、卫生、体育等方面的交流和协作。

自治区、自治州的自治机关依照国家规定,可以和国外进行教育、科学技术、文化艺术、卫生、体育等方面的交流。

第四十三条 民族自治地方的自治机关根据法律规定,制定管理流动人口的办法。

第四十四条 民族自治地方实行计划生育和优生优育,提高各民族人口素质。

民族自治地方的自治机关根据法律规定,结合本地方的实际情况,制定实行计划生育的办法。

第四十五条 民族自治地方的自治机关保护和改善生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害,实现人口、资源和环境的协调发展。

第四章 民族自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院

第四十六条 民族自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院对本级人民代表大会及其常务委员会负责。民族自治地方的人民检察院并对上级人民检察院负责。

民族自治地方人民法院的审判工作,受最高人民法院和上级人民法院监督。民族自治地方的人民检察院的工作,受最高人民检察院和上级人民检察院领导。

民族自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院的领导成员和工作人员中,应当有实行区域自治的民族的人员。

第四十七条民族自治地方的人民法院和人民检察院应当用当地通用的语言审理和检察案件,并合理配备通晓当地通用的少数民族语言文字的人员。对于不通晓当地通 用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们提供翻译。法律文书应当根据实际需要,使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。保障各民族公民都有使用本民族语言文字进行 诉讼的权利。

第五章 民族自治地方内的民族关系

第四十八条 民族自治地方的自治机关保障本地方内各民族都享有平等权利。

民族自治地方的自治机关团结各民族的干部和群众,充分调动他们的积极性,共同建设民族自治地方。

第四十九条 民族自治地方的自治机关教育和鼓励各民族的干部互相学习语言文字。汉族干部要学习当地少数民族的语言文字,少数民族干部在学习、使用本民族语言文字的同时,也要学习全国通用的普通话和规范文字。

民族自治地方的国家工作人员,能够熟练使用两种以上当地通用的语言文字的,应当予以奖励。

第五十条 民族自治地方的自治机关帮助聚居在本地方的其他少数民族,建立相应的自治地方或者民族乡。

民族自治地方的自治机关帮助本地方各民族发展经济、教育、科学技术、文化、卫生、体育事业。

民族自治地方的自治机关照顾本地方散居民族的特点和需要。

第五十一条 民族自治地方的自治机关在处理涉及本地方各民族的特殊问题的时候,必须与他们的代表充分协商,尊重他们的意见。

第五十二条 民族自治地方的自治机关保障本地方内各民族公民都享有宪法规定的公民权利,并且教育他们履行公民应尽的义务。

第五十三条民族自治地方的自治机关提倡爱祖国、爱人民、爱劳动、爱科学、爱社会主义的公德,对本地方内各民族公民进行爱国主义、共产主义和民族政策的教 育。教育各民族的干部和群众互相信任,互相学习,互相帮助,互相尊重语言文字、风俗习惯和宗教信仰,共同维护国家的统一和各民族的团结。

第六章 上级国家机关的职责

第五十四条 上级国家机关有关民族自治地方的决议、决定、命令和指示,应当适合民族自治地方的实际情况。

第五十五条 上级国家机关应当帮助、指导民族自治地方经济发展战略的研究、制定和实施,从财政、金融、物资、技术和人才等方面,帮助各民族自治地方加速发展经济、教育、科学技术、文化、卫生、体育等事业。

国家制定优惠政策,引导和鼓励国内外资金投向民族自治地方。

上级国家机关在制定国民经济和社会发展计划的时候,应当照顾民族自治地方的特点和需要。

第五十六条 国家根据统一规划和市场需求,优先在民族自治地方合理安排资源开发项目和基础设施建设项目。国家在重大基础设施投资项目中适当增加投资比重和政策性银行贷款比重。

国家在民族自治地方安排基础设施建设,需要民族自治地方配套资金的,根据不同情况给予减少或者免除配套资金的照顾。

国家帮助民族自治地方加快实用科技开发和成果转化,大力推广实用技术和有条件发展的高新技术,积极引导科技人才向民族自治地方合理流动。国家向民族自治地方提供转移建设项目的时候,根据当地的条件,提供先进、适用的设备和工艺。

第五十七条 国家根据民族自治地方的经济发展特点和需要,综合运用货币市场和资本市场,加大对民族自治地方的金融扶持力度。金融机构对民族自治地方的固定资产投资项目和符合国家产业政策的企业,在开发资源、发展多种经济方面的合理资金需求,应当给予重点扶持。

国家鼓励商业银行加大对民族自治地方的信贷投入,积极支持当地企业的合理资金需求。

第五十八条 上级国家机关从财政、金融、人才等方面帮助民族自治地方的企业进行技术创新,促进产业结构升级。

上级国家机关应当组织和鼓励民族自治地方的企业管理人员和技术人员到经济发达地区学习,同时引导和鼓励经济发达地区的企业管理人员和技术人员到民族自治地方的企业工作。

第五十九条 国家设立各项专用资金,扶助民族自治地方发展经济文化建设事业。

国家设立的各项专用资金和临时性的民族补助专款,任何部门不得扣减、截留、挪用,不得用以顶替民族自治地方的正常的预算收入。

第六十条 上级国家机关根据国家的民族贸易政策和民族自治地方的需要,对民族自治地方的商业、供销和医药企业,从投资、金融、税收等方面给予扶持。

第六十一条 国家制定优惠政策,扶持民族自治地方发展对外经济贸易,扩大民族自治地方生产企业对外贸易经营自主权,鼓励发展地方优势产品出口,实行优惠的边境贸易政策。

第六十二条随着国民经济的发展和财政收入的增长,上级财政逐步加大对民族自治地方财政转移支付力度。通过一般性财政转移支付、专项财政转移支付、民族优惠 政策财政转移支付以及国家确定的其他方式,增加对民族自治地方的资金投入,用于加快民族自治地方经济发展和社会进步,逐步缩小与发达地区的差距。

第六十三条 上级国家机关在投资、金融、税收等方面扶持民族自治地方改善农业、牧业、林业等生产条件和水利、交通、能源、通信等基础设施;扶持民族自治地方合理利用本地资源发展地方工业、乡镇企业、中小企业以及少数民族特需商品和传统手工业品的生产。

第六十四条 上级国家机关应当组织、支持和鼓励经济发达地区与民族自治地方开展经济、技术协作和多层次、多方面的对口支援,帮助和促进民族自治地方经济、教育、科学技术、文化、卫生、体育事业的发展。

第六十五条 国家在民族自治地方开发资源、进行建设的时候,应当照顾民族自治地方的利益,作出有利于民族自治地方经济建设的安排,照顾当地少数民族的生产和生活。国家采取措施,对输出自然资源的民族自治地方给予一定的利益补偿。

国家引导和鼓励经济发达地区的企业按照互惠互利的原则,到民族自治地方投资,开展多种形式的经济合作。

第六十六条 上级国家机关应当把民族自治地方的重大生态平衡、环境保护的综合治理工程项目纳入国民经济和社会发展计划,统一部署。

民族自治地方为国家的生态平衡、环境保护作出贡献的,国家给予一定的利益补偿。

任何组织和个人在民族自治地方开发资源、进行建设的时候,要采取有效措施,保护和改善当地的生活环境和生态环境,防治污染和其他公害。

第六十七条 上级国家机关隶属的在民族自治地方的企业、事业单位依照国家规定招收人员时,优先招收当地少数民族人员。

在民族自治地方的企业、事业单位,应当尊重当地自治机关的自治权,遵守当地自治条例、单行条例和地方性法规、规章,接受当地自治机关的监督。

第六十八条 上级国家机关非经民族自治地方自治机关同意,不得改变民族自治地方所属企业的隶属关系。

第六十九条 国家和上级人民政府应当从财政、金融、物资、技术、人才等方面加大对民族自治地方的贫困地区的扶持力度,帮助贫困人口尽快摆脱贫困状况,实现小康。

第七十条 上级国家机关帮助民族自治地方从当地民族中大量培养各级干部、各种专业人才和技术工人;根据民族自治地方的需要,采取多种形式调派适当数量的教师、医生、科学技术和经营管理人员,参加民族自治地方的工作,对他们的生活待遇给予适当照顾。

第七十一条 国家加大对民族自治地方的教育投入,并采取特殊措施,帮助民族自治地方加速普及九年义务教育和发展其他教育事业,提高各民族人民的科学文化水平。

国家举办民族高等学校,在高等学校举办民族班、民族预科,专门或者主要招收少数民族学生,并且可以采取定向招生、定向分配的办法。高等学校和中等专业学校 招收新生的时候,对少数民族考生适当放宽录取标准和条件,对人口特少的少数民族考生给予特殊照顾。各级人民政府和学校应当采取多种措施帮助家庭经济困难的 少数民族学生完成学业。

国家在发达地区举办民族中学或者在普通中学开设民族班,招收少数民族学生实施中等教育。

国家帮助民族自治地方培养和培训各民族教师。国家组织和鼓励各民族教师和符合任职条件的各民族毕业生到民族自治地方从事教育教学工作,并给予他们相应的优惠待遇。

第七十二条 上级国家机关应当对各民族的干部和群众加强民族政策的教育,经常检查民族政策和有关法律的遵守和执行。

第七章 附则

第七十三条 国务院及其有关部门应当在职权范围内,为实施本法分别制定行政法规、规章、具体措施和办法。

自治区和辖有自治州、自治县的省、直辖市的人民代表大会及其常务委员会结合当地实际情况,制定实施本法的具体办法。

第七十四条 本法由全国人民代表大会通过,自1984年10月1日起施行。

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